1.Перепишите предложения, подчеркните глаголы-сказуемые и укажите в скобках их видовременную форму. Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Output is the result produced by a computer.
2. In a fast developing computer world floppy disks are becoming obsolete.
3. A CD drive is a storage device that uses laser technology to work with data.
4. AU computer systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, processing, controlling and outputting.
5. The engineers are carrying out complex calculations with the help of the mainframe how.
2.Перепишите следующие предложения, поставьте глаголы в нужную форму (Past Simple/Present Perfect). Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Early computers ((be) really no more than calculating devices.
2. With the coming of expensive microcomputers their applications (become) more versatile.
3. The first personal computers (be) desktop models.
4. It has been estimated that 2015 microcomputers (be) common as TV sets.
5. Many technical developments of electronic digital computers (take place) in the 1940s and 1950s.
3.Перепишите предложения, подчеркните глаголы-сказуемые и укажите в скобках видовременные формы, выражающие будущее время. Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The larger computer developers are planning to introduce “green” computers to the market next year.
2. We’re going to use a trackball instead of an optical mouse as it requires less desktop space.
3. Recently certain binary machines have been announced which will be capable of utilizing magnetic disc file memories.
4. Manufacturers will have produced a new notebook with multiprocessing capabilities by the end of this year.
5. According to the schedule we begin to distribute a new software product next month.
4.Перепишите предложения, подчеркните глаголы-сказуемые и в скобках укажите их видовременную форму. Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The creation of the microprocessor has changed the world.
2. The control unit interprets the instructions and issues commands to the other functional units.
3. Second-generation computers were easier to program than the first-generation computers.
4. We were carefully checking up the results of experiments all day yesterday.
5. It was announced that Russia had allocated 1.1 billion roubles to build supercomputers.
5. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения.
1. There are four different elements in a digital computer.
2. There exist two types of mouse: optical and mechanical.
3. There are two categories of output: soft copy and hard copy.
4. There exist several devices used for inputting information into the computer.
5. There are two fundamentally different types of computers.
6. Прочтите и письменно переведите текст.
Application of Computers
At present a great deal of the work force of most countries is engaged in creating, processing, storing, communicating and just working with information. Computers have become commonplace in homes, offices, stores, schools, research institutes, plants.
The use of computers in business, industry and communication services is widespread today. Computer-controlled robots are able to improve the quality of manufactured products and to increase productivity. Computers can control the work of power stations, plants and docks. They help in making different decisions and in management of economy.
The work of banks depends upon computer terminals for millions of daily operations. Without these terminals, records of deposits and withdrawals would be difficult to maintain, and it would be impossible to make inquiries about the current status of customer accounts.
Computers form a part of many military systems including communication and fire control. They are applied for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. Space exploration depends on computers for guidance, on-board environment and research.
Weather forecasting, library information services can benefit from computers too. It is interesting to note that computers are widely used in medicine. They became valuable medical diagnostic tools. Computers are used for optical scanning and image processing, ranging from pattern recognition to image processing. Technicians can operate computer tomography scanners which combine X-rays with computer technology to give sectional views of the body of patients. The views then can be combined into a single image shown on the screen.
It should be noticed that learning on a computer can be fun. Students spend more time with computer-aided instruction performing the assigned task, as compared with conventional classroom.
Air traffic control is impossible without computer application. It fully depends on computer-generated information.
Many other uses of computer that we cannot imagine at present will become commonplace in the transition from an industrial to post industrial, or information society.
контрольная работа №2
1.Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения. Подчеркните в каждом из них модальные глаголы.
1. Binary digits, also called bits, can be grouped to form letters, numbers, symbols.
2. You need to understand how the data bus width and system clock speed affect performance.
3. The machine language designed for a specific CPU must be designed to work with the CPU’s instruction set.
4. RISC chips may become popular if enough native applications become available.
5. Numeric data consists of numbers that might be used in arithmetic operations.
2.Перепишите предложения, вставьте в них следующие модальные глаголы: should, can, need to, might, must. Письменно переведите предложения.
1. Some processors … execute several instructions in a single clock cycle.
2. Manufactures … decide whether to make the new chip downwardly compatible with previous models.
3. If the right type of port is not available, you’ll … add on expansion card.
4. Your computer … know how much memory is available.
5. The list of instructions that a microprocessor … to execute is known as its instruction set.
3.Перепишите предложения, переведите их, обратив внимание на различные функции местоимения it.
1. Although a microprocessor is sometimes mistakenly referred to as “a computer on a chip”, it can be described as “a CPU on a chip”.
2. It’s important that you know enough about processing to make intelligent selections when buying a computer.
3. The most important thing about a computer system is that it enables you to do all the tasks you want to accomplish.
4. It’s also important to remember that your operating system requires a considerable amount of space.
5. The basic language of the computer is machine language, but it’s in binary form.
2. Adding more memory chips may being necessary to run large and graphics-intensive applications.
3. Software must to be written in accordance with a particular CPU’s requirements.
4. Informed citizens of our information-dependent society should being computer-literate.
5. Mark I was the first machine that could figured out long lists of mathematical problems at a very fast rate.
5. Перепишите предложения, поставьте модальные глаголы в форме:
а) прошедшего времени; б) будущего времени.
1. Electric pulses can move at the speed of light.
2. In order to solve scientific problems researchers must deal with the language of science – mathematics.
3. Memories may be classified as electronic or electromechanical.
4. The specific functions of internal storage are to store all data and instructions, intermediate and final results of processing.
5. Word processing is faster and easier than writing by hand and you can store documents on your computer which you can’t usually do on a typewriter.
6. Прочтите и письменно переведите текст.
Computer hardware can be divided into four categories: input hardware, processing hardware, storage hardware, output hardware.
The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer processing. The most common input device is a keyboard. It looks very much like a typewriter. The mouse is a handheld device connected to the computer by a small cable. As the mouse is rolled across the mouse pad, the cursor moves across the screen. When the cursor reaches the desired location, the user usually pushes a button on the mouse once or twice to signal a menu selection or a command to the computer.
The light pen uses a light sensitive photoelectric cell to signal screen position to the computer. Another type of input hardware is optic-electronic scanner that is used to input graphics as well as typeset characters. Microphone and video camera can be also used to input data into the computer. Electronic cameras are becoming very popular among the consumers for their relatively low price and convenience.
The purpose of processing hardware is to retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer. The most common components of processing hardware are the Central Processing Unit and main memory. The CPU is the brain of the computer. It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing activities that must take place. The design of the CPU affects the processing power and the speed of the computer, as well as the amount of main memory it can use effectively. With a well-designed CPU you can perform highly sophisticated tasks in a very short time.